Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ category

How To Choose The Right Cooling System For Your Budget

January 11th, 2021

Now that you’ve decided to upgrade your existing cooling system or install one for the first time there are many things that you should take into consideration when factoring your budget.

Cooling systems come in a variety of sizes and designs. It is important for you to choose one that is the appropriate size for your home. If you chose a system that is too large, you will not only pay more for the system but the cost of keeping it running may cost more than you had planned. A smaller unit may not cool your home down with the consistency of a system more suited for your home. If you choose a system that is too small you may find yourself constantly readjusting and using more energy than anticipated. Many people think that a smaller unit will be better, but it may cost you more to use in the long run. If you choose a system that is designed specifically for homes of your size, you will save energy and money by not constantly having to turn the system on and off, having one that can regulate itself based on the size of your home is an important factor to keep in mind.

The price of the system and installation is something that varies on the size of the unit you choose and how much work will be needed to install it. When looking to have a unit installed it is important that gather as many written estimates from different companies so that you will be more prepared as to what the average cost will be. Be sure to factor in all the possibilities and unforeseen incidents that may add on to your bill. It may seem tedious but doing a little research and calling around may save you money on your installation. The first contractor may seem like the best choice but it is always important to look around for a better deal while maintain the safety and proper installation of your cooling unit.

Energy Efficiency
There are several newer models of home cooling systems that are more energy efficient than their predecessors. Using new technology and developments in the designs of newer cooling systems they are now more energy efficient than ever. In choosing an energy efficient model, you will be running a system that requires less energy to run but still enjoy the benefits of your system. With improvements constantly being made you will have a system that saves both energy and money.

The installation of a cooling system in your home will not only make your home more enjoyable during the hot summer months, but will also add to the value of your home. Just keep in mind some of the points listed above when choosing a system and you will find one that is perfect for your home and make it a more pleasurable way to spend your summer indoors without baking in the afternoon heat.

Introduction To Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems

December 15th, 2020

Most modern homes have opted to install heating & cooling systems because of their ability to keep you comfortable no matter what time of the year it may be. During summer, the system can help keep your family cool and fresh. And during winter, they can provide warmth while you are indoors. This is why it is important to invest in a high quality system that is installed by experienced professionals. But if you want to reduce your carbon footprint and contribute to environmental preservation while still keeping your family comfortable, choose a geothermal system heating & cooling system.

Choosing a geothermal heating & cooling system offers a wide range of benefits. They are suited for all types of buildings, whether residential homes, offices, or commercial buildings. Due to their benefits, this type of heating and cooling system is growing in popularity.

Unlike several years ago when this type of system was viewed as an alternative, nowadays it is a leading option amongst homeowners. One of the most notable benefits to choosing a geothermal heating & cooling system is the reasonable price. The oil used to run other types of systems is expensive, especially with the rate at which oil prices in the global market continues to increase.

So, how does this system work? A solution-filled water pipe is built and put onto the earth. This allows it to absorb the temperature from the ground. Then, water is introduced into a heat exchanger where it releases heat towards the refrigerant and an eco-friendly gas is converted from the liquid sent through the pipes. The gas is fed into a compressor to undergo another heat exchange that is then released into a duct.

The design of geothermal heating & cooling systems play a critical role in conserving the use of energy and ensuring that eco-friendly procedures are utilized in this process. It requires extensive knowledge and expertise to ensure that all components are placed correctly and working together well. Without the proper design and installation, you cannot enjoy the benefits that geothermal heating & cooling systems promise to offer.

In addition to ensuring the design is correct, it is important to determine the size and scope of the area that the system will serve. Additionally, the heat load required for every single room in the building must also be determined to take that into account alongside ground temperatures.

Geothermal heating & cooling systems cost roughly $30,000. However, the biggest benefit is the 40 to 70% savings they provide consumers on their energy costs. Therefore, this type of system pays for itself over time and is definitely a good choice for eco-conscious individuals.

No Sweat Driving With The Help Of Cooling Systems

December 8th, 2020

A lot has changed since the creation of cooling systems for automobiles. Improvements have been made so we can enjoy driving without having to regularly wipe our sweat off. Because the internal combustion engine creates friction, it naturally heats up affecting the car’s temperature. With such, a lot of warmth is circulated within the car resulting to, aside from total discomfort while driving, car damages and problems.

Cooling systems were created to eradicate the dilemma of too much heat production. With the heat created by friction from the engine, coolants must be regulated to maintain a regular temperature. Even with the motor oil’s capacity to lessen friction, the engine still overpowers it. The components of the cooling system which includes pumps, fans, radiators, thermostats, water, hoses, sensors, coolants and overflow tanks altogether massively help in reducing friction and heat.

A cooling system starts working by distributing a liquid coolant through channels or passages in the engine block and heads. During circulation, the coolant garners heat from the engine and continues through a rubber hose towards the radiator of the car. The heated liquid is then cooled as the air flowing from the grill blows the warmth away. After the heat from the fluid is cooled, it returns to the engine to take out more heat. The cooling system also contains a thermostat in order to check that the right temperature is maintained. Moreover, to keep the coolant from boiling, the system is required to be pressured at a specific degree.

One of the dangers of the system is leakage. Leaking is, fortunately, easily identified by a whistling sound or by a greenish-looking liquid. If either of this is present, you have to make sure that your car is repaired immediately. Looking into the serpentine belt should also be a habit to guarantee the cooling system’s functionality.

The system’s coolant or cooling fluid level must be checked and changed frequently to prevent any more damage to the system. The coolant is stored in the radiator overflow so checking for irregularities can be easily done. Maintaining the radiator’s temperature is also a necessity. The way to do this is by opening the cap of the radiator and filling it up with an antifreeze or water. Securing the hoses after filling up must not be forgotten. Preserving the level and quality of the coolant will ensure your cooling system’s function to last for a long period of time. The performance of each part of the cooling system is dependent on each other. If one component fails then the other components will also fail resulting to a damaged cooling system.

To help prevent clogging and corrosion, it is recommended to have your system flushed every 40,000 to 50,000 miles. For a more secured maintenance, seeking the help of a professional mechanical is advisable. At least once a year, have your car checked into a repair shop with a qualified technician.

Automotive Cooling Systems and Emissions

November 23rd, 2020

When most of us think of modern cooling systems, we tend to think overheating, leaks, and maybe even poor cabin heat. But another valid reason for maintaining and inspecting cooling systems is their direct impact on the engine’s emissions level and fuel economy.

Let’s start by reviewing the combustion process. The engine compresses the mixture to raise pressure. This, in turn, increases the temperature of the air/fuel mixture and aids in combustion. If the combustion chamber is too cool, the process needs extra fuel to insure combustion. Think of the old carbureted days of thermostatically controlled chokes that enrichened the mixture on cold starts. There is even a powertrain DTC assigned to this very issue…P0128, Engine is cold too long. Some manufacturers have unique code assignments for this issue. If the combustion chamber temperature gets too hot, Nox emissions will increase. While normally the job of the EGR system, it can only cool so much. If the engine itself is running hotter than normal, the benefit of added EGR is reduced.

Diagnosing the P0128 Diagnostic Trouble Code

The ECM (Engine Control Module) is charged with keeping an eye on any system that will have an impact on what comes out of the tailpipe. Typically, the ECM monitors the ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature) sensor after a cold start, looking for the engine coolant to reach normal temperature in a preset time frame. If the ECM does not see its threshold value in the allotted time, it assumes there is a problem in the cooling system, preventing normal operating temperature from being attained. This is a 2-trip code, meaning that if the ECM gets the same results after 2 consecutive tests, it will record the code and turn on the MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp).

The code criterion provides clues on what to test. First, the ECT sensor must be reading correctly. The ECM can only base its decisions on the information it receives. Second, the cooling system must be functioning properly…coolant levels must be correct, no air in the system, cooling fans cycling normally and the thermostat opening and closing as it should. Fortunately, all these factors can be tested at one time with minimal effort.

In my experience, the thermostat is usually the culprit. But to make sure, I set up a few monitors of my own during the test. First, I hook up the scan tool and display the ECT reading, positioning the scan tool under the hood where I can watch it. Second, I use a temperature probe attached to my DVOM (Digital Volt-Ohm Meter) and place the probe in the radiator fins as close to the outlet hose from the engine as I can get. (Make sure it is the outlet from the engine and not the return.) Last, I use an infrared temperature gun to measure temperature on the inlet side of the thermostat housing. Now I can start my test.

Start the engine and watch the ECT reading. It should climb smoothly. You can even graph the data if your scan tool has this feature to see if the signal drops out during warm-up. I use the infrared gun to measure the temperature on the inlet side of the thermostat housing to compare to the ECT reading. While not accurate, it is usually within a few degrees if the sensor is reading correctly. The color of the surface, and the material it’s made of, will affect your temperature gun’s reading. At the same time, I’m watching the temperature reading on my DVOM. If it, too, climbs almost immediately after start up, I know the thermostat isn’t closed. Of course, you can tell this by feel as well, but bear with me…I’m not done yet.

If the DVOM reading stays cold, I keep monitoring the engine temperature readings. As soon as I see the ECT reading near the specification for opening of the thermostat, I look to see if the outlet temperature begins to increase. If so, the thermostat is opening as it should. If not, the thermostat is stuck closed, or there is potential air in the system affecting its operation. If the thermostat opens prematurely, it may have been replaced with one of the incorrect rating, or have a damaged spring or seat.

If all is well to this point, the fault is not present at the time of testing. This could indicate a problem in the wiring from the ECT sensor to the ECM, and electrical checks may be in order. Remember, the ECM can only base its decisions on the information it receives, and if the ECM thinks the engine is cold it will still adjust its initial fuel calculations accordingly.
Of course, if the cooling fans come on immediately and stay on, the cooling fan control system needs to be diagnosed and corrected before proceeding.

While You’re At It

Since I’m already connected, I continue to run the engine to normal operating temperature, making sure it stabilizes. Running at idle, with no airflow across the radiator, will allow the engine’s cooling system to be stressed to perform at its best. I can test the operation of the electric cooling fans by measuring the temperature at which they come on, and by how much of a temperature drop I see as they cycle. In my experience, the fans should come on between 210-240 degrees F as measured at the radiator, and continue to run until temperature drops by 40-60 degrees F. Try out your measurements on known good cars to establish a diagnostic baseline of your own.

On vehicles with viscous fans, temperature should remain relatively stable. If engine temperatures persist in rising after running them for awhile, it’s time to look at system coolant flow and air flow as contributors to the problem. Now we’re in the area of higher than normal engine temperatures and emissions…specifically the formation of Nox. Higher combustion chamber temperatures can also cause “spark knock”, and this, in excess, can lead to engine damage. Troubleshoot these systems as you would normally.


Proper cooling system function is also an important contributor to fast idle or idle surges complaints on many vehicles that use Idle Air Control systems that rely on coolant temperature as a control. In these systems, typically, a wax pellet is built into the valve and is heated by engine coolant. If the lines are restricted, or there is air in the system, the valve never adjusts and the engine can race at a fast idle speed or more. In some vehicles, this situation is complicated by the ECM’s need to control idle speed. The ECM will first try to adjust the IAC system, and failing that, start varying timing in an attempt to get the idle speed to where it should be. Look for IAC systems that use both an IAC stepper motor and a Fast Idle Air Valve when dealing with this type of complaint. A quick test to verify the fault is to remove the intake boot and close off the IAC port in the throttle body with your finger. If you feel high vacuum, or the engine idle tries to smooth out and stabilize, you’re on the right track.

Today’s engine cooling systems are more complex than ever, with multiple flow paths and some with multiple thermostats and water pumps. While their main job is protecting the engine from excessive heat, they also play an important role in emissions control and fuel consumption. So next time you speak to your customer about cooling system maintenance, educate them on the total job the cooling system is expected to do.

Keep Your Home Cool This Summer With a Clean Cooling System

November 5th, 2020

With the cold weather on the way out and spring in the air it is time to start planning your spring cleaning items. One thing to not forget is the importance of spring cleaning your cooling system. Without a clean cooling system you will often find hard working systems, systems that don’t cool well, and you can spend a ton of money trying to fix these units. Save money and time with a properly functioning cooling system.

Spring cleaning your cooling system can be the difference between great functioning comfortable surroundings and a cooling system that works too hard and hardly cools the home. When you are looking to clean your units there are some important steps you must take.

One of the first steps that can save you a lot of time and money in servicing your cooling systems is to clean and change your filters. If you have units that run off the furnace then you will want to make sure your filters are properly cleaned for a great working unit. You will want to change your filters every 30-60 days. If you have not changed them in a while you may find your unit will not turn on. Before you call a service provider try changing the filters for a smooth working system.

Other types of cooling systems may have different types of filters. You will want to ensure you check and clean these filters before turning on the unit. This will keep those units working properly and efficiently.

Regardless of your cleaning unit type you will want to make sure you clean the outside of the unit thoroughly. During the winter the build up of debris, dust, and other elements can make your cooling unit not function properly. Clear the clutter and debris and give your unit a good wash down. Spring cleaning your cooling system would not be complete without cleaning the debris from your units.

One thing to really consider is having your cooling systems serviced during your spring cleaning. With a little servicing your units can perform to optimum levels and make your spring cleaning easier. Calling to have your units serviced can be a great step in spring cleaning your cooling system.

For just a few dollars you can have your vents cleaned. Having clean vents and serviced cooling systems can aid you in longer lasting systems and higher performing units. This is a great time to have your cooling systems cleaned and ready for those hot summer days. When you are thinking about spring cleaning your cooling systems it is always important to remember that keeping a clean system will save you time and money.

Just remember that a clean unit is well worth the effort in those hot summer days. So as you start to plan your spring cleaning this spring, don’t forget to add your cooling system to the list. With a clean unit you can enjoy a comfortable home without the high cost of cooling.

Benefits of a Cool-N-Save Air Conditioning Pre Cooling System

October 22nd, 2020

Every household makes use of an air conditioning unit. Some people use it at night, some during the day. It all depends whether the weather is too uncomfortable during a specific time. Most instances, the air conditioning unit will be turned on to at least compensate for the discomfort. However, in days of extreme heat, an air conditioning system or unit will have a hard time circulating cool air to the area it is suppose to provide for. The air conditioning unit has to double its efforts to pump out the cool air because of its continued compensation and battle with the extreme heat from outside. Apparently, whenever this happens, the life expectancy of the unit will shorten and can end up consuming more electricity. This is true for many of your standard air conditioners especially old ones. Thankfully, there has been a breakthrough to help ease the problem and it is all going to come down to the cool-n-save air condition pre-cooling system.

The system is based on what commercial structures use. Like warehouses, factories and offices, majority of these structures have a misting system all over its air conditioning unit. If you are not familiar the logic of it all is very similar to the mist systems that you can see at entrance doors of restaurants and parks. In no less than five minutes your home may have one too.

When a cool-n-save system is installed, it is usually located above the air conditioning unit. It works to absorb heat from the air by using what they call a flash evaporation. Through this method, the room instantly cools in temperature and even if it is using water, there will be no evidence of it since it has completely evaporated. What works well with home owners is that the cool-n-save only turns on when the ac is powered as well. Both units rely on each other to provide power and water that is then thrown into the air or as mist.

Why the cool-n-save works well beyond any other standard cooling system is the fact that it is a simpler contraption compared to the regular bulky misting systems that you may have seen. For any home owner, installing a regular cooling system will definitely have to spend a lot of money because these aren’t cheap. Unlike the cool-n-save, the machine is very small and accessible, it can easily be controlled. In fact, maintenance is easy and will only require minor cleaning.

The biggest factor that benefit a home with a cool-n-save is through its effects on cooling within a room is because of its patented control valve. Electricity is hardly consumed and if ever it is turned on, the consumption can hardly be felt. As mentioned above, it turns on and closes the same time as the AC so it feels like it is only an add-on to the entire unit.

Now that you’ve seen the capabilities of a cool-n-save air conditioning pre cooling system, does it not justify itself and its purpose? Make the move and have that instant cooling satisfaction in your home.

2 Types of Computer Liquid Cooling Systems

October 15th, 2020

Most of the gamers today who frequently over-clock their computer to gain faster speed are, without a doubt, familiar with computer liquid cooling systems. If you are not yet familiar with them, these are the type of CPU coolers that resemble a car radiator. Just like a car radiator, their primary cooling agent is a cooling liquid which goes through a tube into the CPU heat sink, then goes out back to the radiator to be cooled by a fan there, then goes back in again into the interior of the computer case.

These systems have been found to be rather more effective than a regular cooling fan, which sometimes generate too much noise to the point of annoying the user of the computer. If you are planning to install a system kit in your computer, then it is really very important to know the different types of computer liquid cooling systems so that you will be properly guided with the knowledge as to which one is the best for you.

Compact Liquid Cooling System

The primary advantage of this type of computer liquid cooling system is, naturally, its compactness. Most of these systems are pre-filled with liquid coolants and so all you have to do is to install them and you are good to go. These types of systems are also easy to install and come with copper CPU cooling plates for maximum cooling performance. Its pumps and liquid reservoir are also sealed, improving leakage protection and also guaranteeing that that there will be no need for any further maintenance on the part of the user. The downside to this kind of system is that once the pumps fail then there is a good chance that you would have to buy another set again. True, a technician may be able to repair it but then it will surely create an effect on the leakage protection that these types of computer liquid cooling system takes pride in.

Heavy Duty Liquid Cooling System

One of the distinct advantages with this computer liquid cooling system type is its ability to suck the heat out of the CPU by utilizing a water block which divides the flow into several channels. This accelerates the heat transfer from the source to the cooling liquid, improving its capacity to lower the heat level at a faster pace. One major downside of this type of cooling system is that it is very bulky, requires the user to replenish the coolant every so often, and is prone to leakage sometimes, which could be fatal for your computer.

Using a system would definitely help your CPU maintain its temperature on allowable levels. However, if your usage is limited to spreadsheets, documents or Internet, then there is no need to install these computer liquid cooling systems.

Wine Cellar Cooling Systems

September 25th, 2020

Wine cellar cooling systems are designed specifically to maintain a constant temperature between 55 to 57 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity levels between 50 to 70 percent. The right humidity levels will keep your corks moist and swollen enough thus ensuring a tighter seal while the right temperature moderates your wine’s aging process.

Always keep in mind:

• If humidity is too low, you dry out the corks, thus allowing air to slip into the bottle and if oxidation occurs, the wine will surely be ruined.

• If humidity is too high, you risk growing mold in your corks, labels and wine racks.

• If the temperature is too cold, the wine becomes dormant and would end up tasting flat instead of being fruity and sparkling.

• If the temperature is too high, you risk cooking the wine and aging it prematurely.

Ideally, however, the cellar room itself should be designed and constructed precisely with the right conditions for these temperature and humidity variables to work.

The Wine Room

Before installing a wine refrigeration system, make sure the room is vapor sealed and properly insulated.

• Every wall and ceiling should be scaled with a vapor barrier on the “warm side” of the walls. 6 or 8 mil plastic sheeting is highly recommended.

• Interior walls should be insulated to a minimum of R-19. We recommend using rigid foam board. Additionally, all cracks should be filled with expanding spray foam.

• All walls are finished with moisture resistant green board.

• Doors should be solid wood and/or insulated and weather stripping is vital for an air tight seal.

• Glass should be double pane with a minimum of a 1/2″ gap.

• Lighting should be low wattage.

The Wine Cellar Refrigeration Units

Wine cellar refrigeration unit types and models are usually chosen based on room size, which is usually measured in cubic feet (Length x Width x Height). Other factors to consider are the location of your wine room and the geographical aspects of your home because they can affect the temperature and humidity of your wine room. Measure the size of the room then use a thermometer and hygrometer to test the room’s natural temperature and humidity.

You can now choose your wine cellar refrigeration system based upon your results. There are mainly 2 types of wine cellar cooling units.

The first is the relatively more affordable Self-Contained Cooling System. The self-contained cooling system is a lot like a built-in or through-the-wall air conditioning unit. This system needs to vent to an adjacent climate-controlled room that is usually the same size or larger than your wine room. The WhisperKool XLT Series is one example of a self-contained cooling system.

The second type is the Split Cooling System. This type of wine cellar cooling unit is essentially two separate units, the condenser unit and the evaporator unit. The condenser, which is usually situated outside the house, supplies refrigerant liquid to the evaporator via a compressor, which is normally wall mounted inside the wine room. The evaporator then cools the air that comes into contact with it by turning humid air into liquid, which is then collected outside the wine room.

Split Cooling versus Self-Contained Cooling

Self-contained systems are less expensive and simple to install but possible downsides include the noise it produces during normal operation and a shorter life span (around 5 to 6 years) compared to a split cooling system. The availability of a suitable adjacent room for ventilation can also be a factor but this could be solved by using air ducts to control where the warm air can be vented. One such wine cellar cooling system that uses this method is the Cellarmate Self-Contained System. Of course, there will be additional costs depending on the circumstances surrounding the installation.

Split systems come in handy when dealing with site difficulties or when installation flexibility is needed. On the other hand his wine cellar cooling unit costs more than self-contained ones and requires an HVAC professional to install it. Ideally, the two units must be at least 50 feet apart, which in most cases means that the condenser unit might have to be located outside the house. This means extra costs for the condenser housing, pipelining sets and power source. Split wine cellar cooling systems are more durable, however, and lasts at least a decade longer than self-contained systems.

Both types of climate control systems are popular and selecting one over the other depends on your wine room’s current condition and, of course, your personal preferences. Just make sure you get everything right and your valued wine collection will turn out right as well.

Do You Flush? If Not, You Should: Flushing Your Cooling System

August 10th, 2020

Preventative maintenance can completely eliminate most problems associated with cooling system failures. What kind of maintenance? Your vehicle’s cooling system is made up of many components and parts. The list includes your radiator, water hoses, water pump, thermostat, heater core, and many others. These parts need to be periodically replaced based on their service life and the recommendations of your vehicle service manual. The subject of this article is not a cooling system part per se. What we’re going to discus is the liquid (coolant) that runs throughout the cooling system. This liquid is the agent that is responsible for actually moving heat away from your engine and is commonly called antifreeze.

Before we actually discuss flushing the coolant from your engine, let’s talk about the nature of the liquid cooled engine. I think you’re basic understanding of how the system works will greatly contribute to you properly perform a cooling system flush. I will discuss engine cooling in much greater detail in a subsequent article. I’ll just briefly touch on the subject here.

During the normal operation of your engine, vast amounts of heat are generated. The heat is literally generated by explosions within the cylinders of your engine. If this heat were left to go unchecked, your engine would overheat and cease to function because your oil and other engine components would fail and that’s just the beginning of your problems. Liquid is very good at dissipating heat, so this liquid is pumped throughout the nooks and crannies of your engine, thus removing the heat and taking it to an area where it can be cooled. This “area” is your radiator and it is located at the front of the vehicle.

The radiator has lots of surface area and fins that allow the heat to dissipate quickly. Once cooled, the liquid is then pumped back into the engine where the cycle repeats. This cooling process can actually be performed with plain water, however plain water has two characteristics that aren’t conducive to the practical operation inside an engine. First, water is not good at rust and corrosion prevention. In fact, it actually causes them. Second, water freezes at an unacceptable temperature for normal vehicle operation. Water good, ice bad.

So, we add antifreeze to the water to give it the desirable characteristics for operation within an engine. Most antifreeze is made from ethylene glycol and is typically dyed green, yellow, red, orange, pink, or blue. Because of the ethylene glycol, antifreeze prevents corrosion in the cooling system and freezes at a much lower temperature than water, almost making it the perfect substance for cooling an engine. I said “almost” because the problem with antifreeze, like most things, is that it cannot protect forever. Typically, it looses its protective properties after just two years or 30,000 miles. Extended-life antifreeze is available that protects for much longer, but it is the exception, not the rule.

Now that you know a little bit more about the nature of your cooling system and antifreeze, that brings us to flushing your cooling system. Let’s do it!

The Draining

Caution! Make sure that your engine is cold. If you been driving your vehicle, let it cool for at least an hour before attempting to drain the system. The first thing you need to do is get rid of the old coolant. Remove the radiator cap so that you can let air into the system. You may have to raise the front of the vehicle to get to the bottom of the radiator. Another word of caution. This is a messy job, so make sure you have plenty of rags and paper towels handy. Also, wear goggles or safety glasses to protect your eyes. Coolant burns.

Some drain plugs require a special tool to open them. This tool is available at your local auto parts store. Some drain plugs can be opened by hand and others may require the use of pliers.

Make sure that you have a drain pan with a large enough capacity to catch all of the coolant. You can find the total engine coolant capacity in your owners or service manual. Move the dashboard ventilation lever to HOT to open the valve to the heater core. Now, open the plug and watch the show. If you don’t have a drain plug, just disconnect the lower radiator hose at the radiator. Removing the coolant from the radiator will evacuate about 45% of the coolant from the system. If your engine has a water drain plug on the engine block, removing it will help clear the antifreeze from the system faster than by just draining the radiator alone.

After the first draining, close the bottom of the radiator, fill the system with water, briefly run the engine, drain and repeat. Thus, “flushing” the system. You want to make sure that the final system draining reveals clear water and no more antifreeze.

If your city doesn’t have hazardous waste disposal for the spent antifreeze, the safest way to get rid of it is to pour it into a household drain, clothes washer pipe, or toilet. Don’t pour it onto the ground or into a storm drain. Make sure you keep the old and new antifreeze away from animals and children. It is typically sweet, tempting, and very poisonous.

The Filling and the Bleeding

Now that the system is clear of the old antifreeze, you need to fill the system with the new antifreeze. Again, check the total capacity of the system. You’ll fill the system with half antifreeze and half water. Some antifreeze is available pre-mixed 50/50 with water. If this is the kind you have, then you can just fill as-is.

This process takes a little care and patience to perform correctly. Because the engine block has lots of nooks and crannies, care must be taken to remove trapped air. The radiator fill cap and neck should be at the high point of the system to allow air to bleed out, however sometime this is not the case. So, if you have not raised the front of the vehicle, now is the time to do so.

Fill the radiator with the antifreeze or antifreeze/water mixture. You may have a bleed screw somewhere on the top of the engine. Follow the upper radiator hose. The bleed screw may be on the top of the radiator, on top of the thermostat housing located on the top of the engine, or both. If you have a bleed screw, open it to allow the air to escape. Slowly pour in the required amount of antifreeze until you see it oozing from the air bleeds and then close the bleed screws. Pour the remaining antifreeze into the radiator and top off the system with water.

If your system has a heater core valve, move the dashboard switch to COLD to close the system. Now with the engine running and warm, have someone move the dashboard switch back to HOT and listen to the valve. You should hear an initial rush of coolant into the heater core. After that, the valve should be silent. If you hear the gurgling sound of bubbles, air is still in the system. Check the whole system for leaks and then lower the vehicle. Make sure that you periodically check the coolant level in the system over the next few weeks. Continually top off the radiator as necessary as air rises to the top.


Importance and Types of Transformer Cooling Systems

March 13th, 2020

The load that a transformer carries without heat damage can be increased by using an adequate cooling system. This is due to the fact that a transformer’s loading capacity is partly decided by its ability to dissipate heat. If the winding hot spot temperature reaches critical levels, the excess heat can cause
the transformer to fail prematurely by accelerating the aging process of the transformer’s insulation.

A cooling system increases the load capacity of a transformer by improving its ability to dissipate the heat generated by electric current. In other words, good cooling systems allow a transformer to carry more of a load than it otherwise could without reaching critical hot spot temperatures.

One of the more common types of transformer cooling equipment is auxiliary fans. These can be used to keep the radiator tubes cool, thereby increasing the transformer’s ratings. Fans should not be used constantly, but rather only when temperatures are such that extra cooling is needed. Automatic controls can be set up so that fans are turned on when the transformer’s oil or winding temperature grows too high.

Maintenance of Cooling Systems

* Dry-Type Transformers:For dry-type transformers, the area in which the transformer is to be installed should have proper ventilation. This ventilation should be checked prior to installation to make sure it is adequate. Additionally, the transformer’s radiator vents should be kept clear of obstructions
that could impede heat dissipation.

* Forced Air: If the transformer’s temperature is being kept at acceptable levels by forced air from a fan, the fan’s motors should be checked periodically to make sure they are properly lubricated and operate well. The thermostat that ensures the motors are activated within the preset temperature ranges should be tested as well.

* Water cooled systems: Systems that are cooled by water should be tested periodically to make sure they operate properly and do not leak. Leaks can be checked by raising the pressure within the cooling system, which can be done in various ways. If the cooling coils can be removed from the transformer, internal pressure can be applied by adding water. Otherwise, pressure checks can also be made using air or coolant oil, if the coils need to be checked within the transformer itself.

If the cooling coils are taken out of the transformer, the water cooling system as a whole can be tested. Here, the coils are filled up with water until the pressure reaches 80 to 100 psi, and left under that pressure for at least an hour. Any drop in pressure could be a sign of a leak. The other

equipment linked to a water-cooled system can be tested at the same time, such as the alarm system, water pump and pressure gauges. Also, the water source should be tested to make sure it has sufficient flow and pressure.

*Liquid coolants: When oil coolants are prepared they are dehydrated, and processed to be free of acids, alkalis, and sulfur. They should also have a low viscosity if they are to circulate easily. If a transformer is cooled by oil, the dielectric strength of the oil should always be tested before the
transformer is put into service.

Types of Cooling Systems

For oil immersed transformers, the options for cooling systems are as follows:

* Oil Immersed Natural Cooled (ONAN): Here, both the core and the windings are kept immersed in oil. The transformer is cooled by the natural circulation of this oil. Additional cooling can be provided by radiators, which increase the surface area over which a large transformer can dissipate heat.

Types of Cooling Systems

* Oil Immersed Natural Cooled
* Oil Immersed Air Blast
* Oil Immersed Water Cooled
* Forced Oil Air Blast Cooled
* Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled
* Forced Oil Water Cooled
* Forced Directed Oil and Forced Air Cooling

* Oil Immersed Air Blast (ONAF): In this case air is circulated and the transformer cooled with the help of fans. Fans allow one to have a smaller transformer for a given rating, since not as much surface area is needed for heat dissipation. This in turn can cut costs.

* Oil Immersed Water Cooled (ONWN): Here the transformer is cooled by an internal coil through which water flows. This method is feasible so long as there is a readily available source of a substantial amount of water, which is not always the case. This kind of cooling has become less common in recent years, abandoned in favor of Forced Oil Water Cooled (OFWF).

* Forced Oil Air Blast Cooled (OFAF): In this case, cooling is accomplished in two ways. Oil circulation is facilitated by a pump, and fans are added to the radiators to provide blasts of air.

* Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled (OFAN): For this type of cooling, a pump is included within the oil circuit to aid in oil circulation.

*Forced Oil Water Cooled (OFWF): Here, a pump within the oil circuit forces the oil to circulate out through a separate heat exchanger in which water flows.

The most dependable type of cooling system for a transformer is the oil-immersed naturally cooled (ONAN), which also produces the least noise. A forced-air cooled transformer (OFAF) is more efficient, but it is also noisier and less reliable on account of the possibility of fan malfunction.

The method of forced cooling has been used for many years now to increase the loading capacities of transformers. A transformer’s thermal performance can be directly improved by the implementation of cooling systems. Consequently, it makes sense to avoid excess heating and accelerated aging within a transformer by using the appropriate cooling system.

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